The word „martyr” means „witness” in Greek and Latin, one who voluntarily suffers death as the penalty of refusing to desert one’s belief, or one of its tenets. He is a witness to the truth of his belief. The martyr does not fight, he does not avenge his death on those who condemn him; he does not try to use power; on the contrary, he is a witness that man can reach a height where truth is stronger than power. He affirms his identity as a man who is true to himself, even at the expense of dying. (…) The martyr is usually alone; he is in the hands of enemies who sneer at him and make him feel that he is a fool. (…) ― The martyr represents the utmost of spiritual or, if you please, human self-affirmation; the hero represents the utmost of biological affirmation. The human race may owe its physical survival to the heroes; it certainly owes its spiritual survival to the martyrs. ― (1990s [1967] Martyrs and Heroes, in: Fromm Forum (English version) No. 13 (2009), Tuebingen (Selbstverlag) 2009.)